Let's Play.... follow that chain!
Contestants will identify where I know nothing about law, capitalism, football, or blogging, and attack my arguments. I will have moved onto something else by then, so enjoy yourselves.
All the better to confuse 6th grade Civics Students - "sanctions" can be good or bad... and so can "trust." Title 15 U.S.C (The Sherman Act)
"Every contract, combination in the form of trust or otherwise, or conspiracy, in restraint of trade or commerce among the several States, or with foreign nations, is declared to be illegal."
"Every person who shall monopolize, or attempt to monopolize, or combine or conspire with any other person or persons, to monopolize any part of the trade or commerce among the several States, or with foreign nations, shall be deemed guilty of a felony [. . . ]"
We don't like monopolies - unless they belong to the phone company, cable, gas stations across the street from each other, Kablooms that muscle out local florists, PeeWee football, the public schools, computer operating systems, or NASA. For example.
Question #2: What's an example of anti-trust?
In 1894 the American Railway Union struck against the Pullman Palace Car company over reduced wages and carried out their strike by refusing to service trains with Pullman's cars. Think of mechanics refusing to service Escorts because they (mechanics) are in a beef with the Ford company. Pullman reacted by hitching his cars to the US Mail train, which slowed them down and made this, literally, a federal case.
Question #3: I can't tell who violated the Sherman Act in this scenario
Tricky, ain't it? The court said the railway workers did -- for restraining trade -- not the Pullman company for monopolyzing the mail trains.
In 1981, the Air Traffic controllers' union staged a strike for better pay and working conditions. The President fired them for life -- for interfering with interstate trade.
Question #4: What about Microsoft?
Everyone's just afraid of them. So U.S. settled.
Question #5: I thought we were going to talk about sports.
You know who was against the Sherman Act? Allan Greenspan. well of course he was.
Ugh. Who started this?
In 1922 the US Supreme Court determined that "baseball," (which was not then known as Major League Baseball) was not subject to the Sherman Act because it did not qualify as "interstate commerce."
In 1953, the Supreme Court further said that the Sherman act did not apply to baseball, because it just simply didn't.
ESPN can break this down better from here.